Lately I have been thinking a lot about the use of pressure in horse training. It seems to me that there are two fractions in the horse world today – those who use pressure and release for training and those who condemn it. And I find this a pity because it doesn’t get to the heart of the problem.
Many pressure and release techniques work in the way that the trainer builds up pressure to the point when it gets uncomfortable for the horse and it looks for a way to change the behaviour. That’s the idea of negative reinforcement: a stimulus is being stopped or removed and this reinforces the behaviour. In order for that to work, the stimulus has to be of a quality that is able to change the behaviour, so it must be an aversive stimulus and the horse tries to avoid a negative outcome. A discomfort is being created, either psychologically or physically. The goal is to reduce the aversive stimulus so much that the horse tries to react before the stimulus happens. It looks as if the horse responds willingly to a slight signal, when in fact he just tried to avoid the negative stimulus. He knows about the consequence and doesn’t want to experience it. The problem with this way of training is that from time to time, the horse seems to forget the consequence and has to be reminded.
What we see in praxis is often way too much pressure and in fact, youtube is full of training videos that claim to use negative reinforcement but actually use punishment. According to the definition, punishment involves either taking away a pleasant stimulus (“If you don’t clean up your room, there will be no TV for a week”) or adding an unpleasant stimulus, both in order to make a behaviour LESS LIKELY. Reinforcement looks to make a behaviour MORE LIKELY, with negative reinforcement taking away a stimulus and positive reinforcement adding a stimulus. So, if we are honest, much of the training that we see for spooky horses is in fact positive punishment, when a stimulus is being added to make a behaviour less likely (chasing the horse in a round pen when it is spooky or doesn’t pay attention). Horses trained in this way get to a very high level of stress before they start looking for help and they show strong stress signals. The appearance of calming signals, for example licking and chewing, is then mostly misinterpreted and it is assumed that the horse is now accepting the human as leader, when in fact the horse just returns to a calmer state of mind from an aroused state of mind. He often manages that DESPITE the person, not because of the person.
So we can see the use of too much pressure, too long pressure (we miss the moment for the release), or pressure in the wrong moment. That’s what gives the use of pressure a bad name, in my opinion.
Some riders say they do not use pressure at all and they train purely with positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement means we add a stimulus to make a behaviour more likely. In fact, many riders find this idea appealing but they don’t learn how to do it properly. They just reward the horse for behaviour and don’t realise that they actually do a pressure and release technique (negative reinforcement) with a treat afterwards. That’s not positive reinforcement. A very simple example of positive reinforcement is, that I present the horse with a syringe such as used for worm paste. I want him to take the syringe in his mouth by himself. So I wait until he sniffs it, which I click and reward. In small steps, the behaviour is shaped until the moment when the horse takes the syringe in his mouth every time I present it. The use of food during positive reinforcement can put an enormous amount of pressure on the horse and horses can get very stressed, although we had the intention of only training in a positive way. Also, not being able to figure something out, because the steps might have been too big, can get a horse very frustrated. When it works, positive reinforcement produces shiny horse eyes and proud horses. But when we don’t make the effort to learn the technique properly, it can be just as stressful as other training methods and you can end up with a nippy and pushy horse.
Personally I like to use pressure and I think the usage of pressure doesn’t have to be uncomfortable for the horse. What is my idea of pressure here? Let’s say “an intention to communicate”. For example when teaching the horse to back, I can shift my own weight in the direction I want the horse the move to and see if the horse will react. If it does, I can reward the behaviour (with a treat, a praise, a comforting touch, depending on what works best with this horse). If it doesn’t, I can make my movement more obvious, then I can take the horse by the halter and apply a soft pressure with the halter. I can also first teach the horse how to step away from the whip and use the whip then to explain the backing. If I use pressure in this way, then I simply communicate and I don’t bring the horse in an uncomfortable emotional state. I ask him to follow my idea. The horse also learns from the release here (when I stop my signal), but it’s not because the signal created a discomfort.
In my opinion, instead of fighting over which technique is better, we should rather learn to communicate with the horse in a way that he doesn’t get uncomfortable of stressed. All training techniques can overlook the emotional state of the horse. Instead of chasing a horse in a round pen when it is not connected to us, we can practice leading and following and explain to the horse what we would like him to do, give him direction and be kind and consequent. Instead of trying one bit after the other and finding the one that the horse can’t fight against, we can explain to him how to react on the bit. I meet many horses that never got an explanation of how to react from pressure of the bit. The same goes for leg aids, which should be explained to the horse instead of putting on sharper spurs. We can use different means of how to explain ourselves: a touch with the hand, our body language, a wiggle with the rope, a brush with the whip or just showing the whip, a voice signal, an inner picture, bringing our energy up or down. In all of it, we can look for a soft response from the horse, not a mechanical or emotional one. I believe this will bring us much closer to training with lightness and harmony.
So these are some of the thoughts on pressure I had lately. When you reflect on your own use of pressure, as objectively as possible, what comes to your mind? How is the emotional state of your horse when you use it? Do you have good results or are you always on the look out for a better technique? You can let me know in the comments if you like 🙂